47 47 LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE Vaccination program Vaccinations are preventive meas- ures against infectious diseases and help to keep flocks healthy and pro- ductive. They are only available on prescrip- tion from the attending veterinary officer. The manufacturers’ directions for use must be strictly observed Depending on the region, hens kept in alternative systems should also be vaccinated against fowl pox and especially in the case of free-range hens, against EDS (Egg Drop Syn- drome) as wild waterfowl are reser- voirs for the EDS virus. A combined vaccination against IB, ND, EDS and sometimes also ART should be car- ried out. In alternative layer housing systems, the risk of infection is often higher due to increased exposure to poten- tial risk vectors. Additional vaccines may be necessary for example for fowl pox and EDS. Always consult your veterinarian for advice. As with any vaccination program, a local veterinarian should be con- sulted as they will be aware of issues within your region. The success of vaccinations is deter- mined essentially by the following factors: › Selection of suitable vaccines › Selection of appropriate vaccina- tion times › Selection of suitable vaccination methods › Condition of birds to be vaccinated Example of a vaccination program for LOHMANN Layers Disease Occurrence Application Methods Remarks World-wide Locally Marek SC – IM Day 1 – Hatchery Newcastle* DW – SP – SC – IM Number of vaccinations according to disease pressure Gumboro DW 2 live vaccinations recommended Infectious Bronchitis * DW – SP – SC – IM Number of vaccinations according to disease pressure AE DW – SC – WW Vaccination of PS and Commercials is recommended Mycoplasmosis SP – ED – SC – IM Vaccination before transfer Fowl Pox WW Vaccination before transfer Pasteurellosis SC 2 vaccinations approx. at week 8 and 14 Infectious Coryza SC 2 vaccinations approx. at week 8 and 14 Salmonella DW – SP – IM Vaccination before transfer ILT DW – ED 2 vaccinations between 6 and 14 weeks EDS SC – IM Vaccination before transfer Coccidiosis SP – DW 1. Vaccination between day 1 – 9 DW: Drinking Water SP: Spray ED: Eye Drop WW: Wing Web IM: Intramuscular Injection SC: Subcutaneous Injection * An implementation of early live vaccination for Newcastle Disease (ND) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is of high value in order to induce local protection in the respiratory system of the chicks (priming effect). The right choice of vaccine is crucial. Never vaccinate very young birds with high-virulence live vaccine. Revaccination with live ND and / or IB every 6–8 weeks during production period is beneficial in order to improve the local immunity. The use of inactivated ND/ IB/ IBD vaccine before onset of lay is recommended. A severe vaccination program especially intramuscular injections may depress the body weight development.