48 48 Vaccination methods Individual vaccination Often injections or eye drops. Can be very effective but very labour intensive. Drinking water vaccination Easy to administer but many fac- tors to take into consideration. › Quality of water available › Efficacy of water system being used › Water stabilisers present Spray vaccination Spray vaccinations are also not very labour intensive and are highly effective, but may occa- sionally have side effects. › Labour reliant › Can be difficult to ensure all birds are treated › Can be disruptive to the flock during administration Supplementary vaccinations The infection pressure in deep litter systems is far greater than for cage birds. Moreover, strains of coliform bacteria and Pasteurella can occur and develop in a very narrow geo- graphical area. In such cases, it may be necessary to design autogenous vaccines for use in the rearing facil- ity. These are vaccines devised spe- cifically for your individual sites. Administering vitamins/prebiotics for the first two to three days before and after vaccination can help to reduce stress and prevent undesired reac- tions. To what extent this need to be done depends on the specific situa- tion on each farm. Always keep records of all vaccinations and vaccine serial numbers. LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE › HEALTH Poultry Diseases LOHMANN TOOLBOX