Lohmann Hatchery Guide

14 LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE 14 which don’t need a constant number and which are more flexible. Moreover, some brands of Single-Stage setter can work in relatively high pressure gaps, which can help when setting a biosecurity cascade atmospheric pressure. In contrast, a Multi-Stage incubator is filled with eggs of different embryonic ages, in order to balance all the zones. Some mod- els have fixed trays, which are more bal- anced, and others have trolleys, but every machine has eggs of different embryonic ages inside it. These machines are more easily controllable and don’t need any special programmes, but they have an av- erage in all values with a fix set-point. SINGLE-STAGE › › Environmental conditions can be ad- justed according to the particular needs of the developing embryo › › Hypercapnia and Circadian incubation › › Perfect temperature from setting to trans- fer, relative to embryonic temperature › › Variability capacity and flexible set eggs › › Use of different ambient pressure for increased biosecurity, from egg storage to setter to transfer to hatcher and at process and delivery of chicks › › Shorter hatcher windows from 26–32 hours › › Better uniformity of chicks › › Better cleanness and biosecurity, only one flock, and setter can wash and dis- infect easily › › Lower mortality › › Better meat conversion and body growth, as well as bone structure com- position › › Easy tracing of eggs, easy flock manage- ment, and with necropsy easy solution of incubation issue MULTI-STAGE › › Average of conditions for all the eggs setting in machine › › Problematic works with partial empty setter › › Stable value of CO2, approx. 2,700 ppm › › Differences in chicks and related prob- lems in uniformity › › Long hatch window: + 33 hours and of- ten much longer › › Fix parameters and temperature from setting to transfer › › Low body growth, bone structure dam- aged, possible fibrosis effect in muscles › › Poor cleanliness and poor biosecurity › › Complicated tracing and it is easy to make mistakes or errors in flocks These are the principal differences be- tween the two philosophies of incubation. Multi-Stage can, of course, seem more simple in terms of management and con- trol, and doesn´t need an egg programme. Multi-Stage can also be useful when en- ergy breakdowns occur and can have good economic effects in terms of energy efficiency. However, the modern tech- nology in heat recovering and the use of the free warming product from embryos have eliminated the disadvantage that the Single-Stage process is more expensive in term of energy. Please also remember that the setter can be washed and controlled after every incubation cycle. Pre-Warming, or pre-heating, is a process that prepares the eggs for the start of in- cubation after storage. At this time, the temperature of eggs slowly increases, starting from the storage temperature of 25° C (77 °F). During these hours, eggs are prepared for the increase in cellular replication following incubation, and the positive effect of recompacting the eggs and reducing the relative hatch windows is apparent. In broiler production it is naturally very important that the chicks are uniform and have the same size, but this is very important for layers too. The uniformity promotes liveability, stand- ardises the condition and increases the chicks’ quality; a good process of pre- warming reduces the risk of condensa- tion. Some Multi-Stage hatcheries have a special room where this process is ar- ranged. It is important that this room has a good ventilation and a uniform temperature and air flow. Beware of ar- ranging this process in a corridor or in a room where the temperature isn’t uni- form, as this will only increase the risk of a non-uniform warming and cancel the good effect of this process. However, if there is no other available solution, try to stabilise and standardise the set- ter corridor room at a temperature of 25 °C. Keep trolleys separated with a minimum of 25 cm on each side, as this helps the air flow and increases the time to 8–12 hours. A control of the internal egg temperature in the different levels of the trolley can help verify if conditions are good or bad. Warning: do not arrange this in a ma- Pre-Warming before setting