16 LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE 16 meal-type consistency. A high proportion of very fine components or a structure that is too coarse can lead to selective feed intake and an unbalanced nutrient supply. A diet with an extremely fine consistency reduces the feed intake of the birds and can result in a lacking supply of certain nutrients. If pel- letising of feed is inevitable for hygienic rea- sons the pellets should be crumbled to the recommended consistency. Single particles should be never too hard or too sharp be- cause chicks will refuse to eat them. During the different growth phases of chicks and pullets, qualitatively different feed varieties should be used in which the nutrient con- tent meets the birds changing needs. The diets are matched to the nutrient require- ment and weight development at each stage of growth. The use of chick starter is recom- mended if the standard body-weight is not reached by feeding grower feed or if the daily feed intake is expected to be low. The switch to developer should only be made when the standard body weight has been * Individual Particles not bigger than: › 3mm in chick superstarter-/starter diets › 5mm in grower, developer and layer Sieve Size Passing Part Sieve Size Interval Part of Interval 0.5 mm 19% 0–0.5 mm 19% 1.0 mm 40% 0.51–1.0 mm 21% 1.5 mm 75% 1.01–1.5 mm 35% 2.0 mm 90% 1.51–2.0 mm 15% 2.5 mm 100% >2 mm 10%* 100% Table 4: Recommended Particle-Size Distribution for Chick Starter, Grower, Developer and Layer Feed (MASH) The above table should be understood as an example for a homogenous mash feed structure. Different technique in feed production may lead to different particle sizes and variation. The overall target for mash feed structure needs to be optimal homogeneity. Mash feed with “some finer” or “some coarser” structure will be optimal as well, as long the structure ensures optimal homogeneity. Variation in feed structure frombatch to batch and within different feed delive- ries should be as low as possible. A minimum amount of added fat and/or oil supports homogeneity and palatability of mash feed in the rearing and laying phase.