30 LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE 30 Nests (Non Cage Housing) The quality of nests is also a factor which affects egg quality. Renew the litter in litter- type nests regularly and keep them clean. Provide individual nests at a rate of one nest for 4 hens. Collect floor eggs frequently to keep their rate as low as possible. In addition to sufficient nesting space in fam- ily type nests, the following factors are im- portant for a  low rate of floor eggs: › Clean, dry litter or soft nest lining › Easy access › Even distribution of the nests within the barn › Only one type of nest in the barn For optimum egg quality, rollaway nests in combination with slats are better than litter- type nests or family type nests. Stocking Density The optimal bird density/m 2 depends on management conditions and to which extent climate can be controlled. 6–8 birds/m² can be taken as a general guide for non-cage housing. For cage systems, an area of at least 475– 540 cm 2 /bird is recommended. Take note of deviating regulations for stocking density and declaration of eggs. Equipment Requirements In general, the more closely the growing house and facilities resemble the future production system, the easier it will be for the pullets to settle down in their new environment after transfer to the laying house. The following tables show the equipment requirements for rearing and production period. Table 8: Equipment Requirement for Rearing Period Equipment Age in Weeks Requirement Chick founts 1 1fount (4–5 l) for 100chicks Round drinkers to 20 1drinker (Ø 46 cm) for 125birds Linear drinkers to 20 1running m for 100birds Nipple drinkers to 20 6–8 birds per nipple Chick feeding trays 1–2 1tray for 60chicks Cut off chick cartons 1–2 1carton for 100chicks Round feeders 3–10 11–20 2feeders (Ø 40 cm) for 100birds 3feeders (Ø 40 cm) for 100birds Chain feeders 3–10 11–20 2.5–3.5 lin. m for 100 birds 4.5 lin. m for 100birds Table 9: Equipment Requirement for Production Period Equipment Requirement Round drinkers 1 drinker (Ø 46 cm) for 125birds Linear drinkers 1runningm for 80–100birds Nipple drinkers 6–8birds per nipple Round feeders 4feeders (Ø 40 cm) for 100birds Single nests 1nest (26 x 30 cm) for 4birds Chain feeders 5 lin. m for 100birds Further details in the LOHMANN Management Guide for floor/free range housing.