38 LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE 38 Infections with highly pathogenic influenza can cause up-to 100 % mortality in a few days after infection. The most predominant clinical signs are Edema of the head, edema/ necrosis of comb/wattle and subcutaneous hemorrhage of shanks. Post mortem lesions include hemorrhages in the trachea and the intestinal tract. Diagnosis of Avian Influenza could be done by serology, but this could be used only to monitor infections with Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI). Suspicion of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza has to be inves- tigated immediately by PCR. Real-Time PCR today is one of the most important tools in combatting Avian Influenza, as this allows diagnosis in a few hours with further confir- mation by reference laboratories within 24 to 48 hours. Natural Reservoirs for Type A Influenza Viruses wild aquatic birds, the majority are represent- ed by two Orders: Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns and shorebirds). But there are many other routes of transmission, like direct and indi- rect vectors, smuggling of birds (e.g. fighting cocks) or live bird markets. Humans are, after introduction via migratory birds, for sure to most important source of transmission. Control of HPAI needs a collaboration be- tween all institutions involved, especially the poultry industry and government authori- ties. Suspected cases need to be announced as quick as possible to avoid further spread of the virus. Besides Recommendations in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the OIE there is national and international legislation, like in Europe ‘Council Directive 2005/94/EC on community measures on the control of avian influenza’. Control of NIA includes in many countries eradication of the virus by stamping out of infected populations. This is still the most effective way to control the disease but re-