33 LOHMANN TIERZUCHT › MANAGEMENT GUIDE 33 Hygiene › Set up the farm at a safe distance from other poultry houses and fence in. › Keep birds of only one age group and no other poultry on the farm. › Allow no visitors to enter the farm. › Wear only the farm’s own protective clothing within the farm area and also provide clothing for veterinarians, service andmaintenance workers, and consultants. › Disinfect boots before entering the houses. › Use bulk feed if possible. Do not allow the truck driver to enter the houses. › Safeguard the houses against wild birds and vermin. Keep rats and mice under constant control. › Dispose of dead birds hygienically. Follow local laws and regulations. Daily Control Check at least once daily: › Health status › Temperature › Ventilation › Feed and water consumption › Lighting › Mortality When assessing the state of health, do not just go by the general impression and mortality rate, but also take note of feed and water con- sumption as well as the texture of droppings. Water Supply Clean water is equally as important as good feed for top performance. Therefore fresh, clean, potable water must be available at all times for the layers and an adequate consumption must be always assured. A water meter is a very useful tool to inspect water consumption. The optimum water temperature is about 20 °C. Furthermore feed and water intake are closely correlated. If the birds don’t drink enough water for any reason, the feed intake reduces consequently. The water to feed ratio at comfort temperature is around 1.8–2:1, but this relation increases up to 5:1 at high ambient temperatures above 30 °C. During exposure to high temperatures, birds consume less feed, but more water in an effort to cool their body down. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS